This is something that I’ve thought about for some time so I thought I’d write a series on the topic of invisible interfaces. What is the invisible interface? When people think of a user interface, they think of something visual made up of windows and widgets. Even for a commandline program, it’s the arguments, the output and error messages. But what many people aren’t aware of are the choices the designer made and the logic the programmer codes that make decisions for you. An interface not only encompasses what the developer put into it, but also what the programmer specifically kept out. This benefits the user in a number of ways: a less cluttered interface, a simpler interaction paradigm and fewer steps to accomplish a task. Many of these things are too subtle to be noticed normally which is the beauty of it. Sometimes the best interface is the one you never know is there.
Let’s take for example the flush toilet. Yes, sorry if this example is a bit disgusting but I’ll try and keep it clean and it is a fitting example. Just bear with me here. So, where were we? Ah yes, the toilet. Simple interface. Push down on the lever, water is flushed down and it stops and refills the tank ready for the next flush. It doesn’t get much simpler than that (well, it can but more on that below). Notice how you don’t have to stop the flush. If the toilet is calibrated properly, it should have enough water to flush down whatever you may put in there.
Of course, from a performance/efficiency standpoint, it’s not optimal. You are flushing the same amount of water each time, whether there is liquid or solid matter to be disposed of. How does one work this new requirement (the need to save water) into the interface? In Europe (I have yet to see them stateside), there are toilets with a split button. Hit one side and a lesser amount of water is flushed whereas hitting the other side flushes down a full measure. There are usually markings to indicate 1 or 2 (one or two dots is what I’ve seen) so you can figure out which one is which. Now, the interface has become more complicated. Yes, in the grand scheme of things, it’s not rocket science, but humor me. Now a decision has been added. Do I hit the 1 or 2 button? The user is now required to give the device more information than they had to before. The question is, is complicating the interface worth the functional gain and also, is there a way to effect the same result without changing the interface at all?
How about auto-detecting the amount of water needed? Not only does this optimize the efficiency of the device, it also takes away a decision. Now, of course, whether this can be practically done is in question. It is unclear whether the technology to do this reliably exists and there are also issues of manufacturing, cost and maintenance that play into it. But the point is that from a pure interface standpoint, it would seem to be a better solution. It meets the new requirement while retaining the one button simplicity from before.
And to take it even further, it could sense when a flush is needed, alleviating the need of the button altogether. While these types of toilets are becoming more common in public restrooms, I haven’t heard of any demand for these in the home. Here, it’s possible that automatically doing something on the user’s behalf becomes unwelcome. I can imagine in your smaller bathroom at home, you are likely to trigger it accidentally by walking by it which can be startling. In a public setting, you probably don’t care if toilets are firing off left and right like the cannons in the 1812 Overture. On one hand, it could be just an issue of implementation; maybe the technology just isn’t accurate enough. On the other hand, it’s very possible that this is a feature (when to flush) that the user wants control over. Either way, it’s an issue that the designer must grapple with.
The point of all this is that there is some room for improvement in terms of simplifying interfaces when one strives to have their program/device do more for the user. The more your program does, the less the user has to. But one can also overstep their bounds to create something that may be seen as intrusive. It’s about defining the balance between what the user does and what the machine does, with an eye towards putting more on the machine’s side.
As I mentioned in the beginning, I’m intending this to be the start of a series. Don’t expect some well-thought out arc with this; it will probably just be an occasional article here and there. While part of me wouldn’t mind writing more about toilets (I haven’t even touched upon those wacky Japanese toilets1), in the next installments, I’ll try and come up with examples more relevant to computer/human interaction.
1: warning: linked page features bare asses